A stem cell is a non-differentiated living cell that has the potential to differentiate into specialised tissue and to produce more stem cells. They are present in all mammals, humans alike. There are basically two types of stem cells, embryonic stem cells which are isolated from the embryo, as present during early human development, and adult stem cells which are found in adults throughout the body. Stem cells are researched and developed to replace cardiac muscle (like after a heart attack), blood cells (in leukaemia and lymphoma patients) and nerve cells (in Parkinson disease and other neuro-degenerative conditions)….
Stem cell therapy for the treatment of hearing and vestibular loss focuses onsensorineural hearing loss due to structural damage in the cochlea or cochlear nerve. It is also utilized to replace damaged vestibular nerve and receptor cells, a promising prospect for patients with bilateral vestibular loss. Common conditions causing these types of sensory loses include presbyacusis (old age changes), ototoxicity, noise induced hearing loss and neuropathy.
该 4 main target cells for stem cell therapy include cells of the stria vascularis, the hair cells, the supporting cells and the spiral ganglion/ nerve cells. It is also postulated that the support cells maintain the ability, with the appropriate signal, to differentiate into hair cells….