双方合伙人: Medical history
sex life, 避孕方法, 性传播感染 (性病), 用药, 和咖啡因的使用, 烟草, 醇, 或非法药物. menstrual cycle and exercise patterns will be checked. If STIs are suspected, more tests may be done.
双方合伙人: Physical exam
A complete physical exam of both is done to check health.
A woman’s physical exam usually includes a pelvic examination and Pap test.
A man’s physical exam usually includes a testicular examination. Not all fertility doctors will do a physical examination of the man. If there are problems with the semen, the doctor may refer the male partner to a urologist.
双方合伙人: Blood or urine tests
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone tests may be done during a woman’s menstrual cycle to help see whether she is ovulating. LH may be checked in a man to see whether he has a pituitary gland problem.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Thyroid function tests may be done to check for thyroid hormone problems that may be preventing ovulation.
Thyroid Hormone Tests
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Prolactin is a hormone made by the pituitary gland. It may be checked if a woman has menstrual cycle or ovulation problems.
The anti-mullerian hormone test is a blood test that is sometimes used to check a woman’s egg supply (ovarian reserve). It may be used for women who are considering IVF. Anti-mullerian levels go down as a woman’s egg supply decreases, which usually happens with age.
在某些情况下, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) may be used to check a woman’s egg supply (ovarian reserve). FSH testing may also be used for men with a very low number of sperm to try to find out the source of the problem.
A testosterone test may be used to see whether a problem with the testicles or pituitary gland is preventing a man from being able to father a child. A low amount of testosterone can lead to low sperm counts.
Tests for sexually transmitted infections (性病) may be done. These may include urine samples or samples from the cervix or urethra.
Male partner: Semen analysis
A semen analysis checks the number of sperm (sperm count), the number of sperm that look normal, the number of sperm that can move normally, the number of white blood cells in the semen, and how much semen is made.
Female partner: Home test
Home LH urine test kits can be used to see when ovulation occurs. Sometimes a woman’s basal body temperature (BBT) is also checked at the same time.
A pelvic ultrasound looks at the size and structure of the uterus and both ovaries. It can check the condition and size of the ovaries during treatment for infertility. It can also be used to check a woman’s egg supply (ovarian reserve). This is done by counting the number of follicles in both ovaries during a certain phase of the menstrual cycle (antral follicle count).
A hysterosalpingogram is an X-ray test that looks at the inside of the uterus and the fallopian tubes. The pictures can show a blockage of the fallopian tubes that would prevent an egg from reaching the uterus or prevent sperm from moving into a fallopian tube to join (fertilize) an egg. This test may also see problems on the inside of the uterus that might prevent a fertilized egg from attaching (implanting) to it.
A sonohysterogram is an ultrasound test that uses saline and ultrasound to look at the female reproductive organs.
Laparoscopy is a procedure to look at a woman’s pelvic organs (uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries) using a thin, lighted scope that is put through a small cut (incision) in the belly. This procedure is used to find cysts, scar tissue (粘连), 肌瘤, and infections that can affect fertility. Laparoscopy can also be used to treat conditions, such as endometriosis. Laparoscopy is usually done with general anesthesia.
双方合伙人: Antibody blood tests
Antibody blood tests may be done to find antisperm antibodies in blood, semen, or vaginal fluids. Doctors question the value of antibody tests for finding the cause of infertility.
Antisperm Antibody Test
双方合伙人: Karyotype (chromosome analysis) or genetic test
Karyotyping is a blood test that looks for problems in the genetic material (chromosomes) in your cells. Some genetic problems make it hard to become pregnant or cause miscarriages.
Genetic tests may be done to help find the cause of infertility.
Male partner: Ultrasound
Ultrasound uses sound waves to make a picture of structures inside the body. It may be done to see whether a problem in the testicles is causing a problem with the sperm.
Male partner: Testicular biopsy
在极少数情况下, when men have no sperm in their semen, a testicular biopsy may be done to check the sperm in the man’s testicles.
Female partner: Hysteroscopy
Hysteroscopy is a procedure that looks at the lining of the uterus using a thin, lighted scope that is put through the vagina and cervix into the uterus. Hysteroscopy is used to find problems in the uterine lining. Sometimes your doctor can use small tools during the procedure to take out growths or take samples of tissue (biopsy) or open a blocked fallopian tube.