الفصام هو اضطراب عقلي[13] تتميز بنوبات الذهان المستمرة أو الانتكاسية.[5] تشمل الأعراض الرئيسية الهلوسة (عادة سماع الأصوات), أوهام, والتفكير غير المنظم.[7] تشمل الأعراض الأخرى الانسحاب الاجتماعي, انخفض التعبير العاطفي, واللامبالاة.[5][14] Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood, and in many cases never resolve.[3][7] There is no objective diagnostic test; the diagnosis is used to describe observed behavior that may stem from numerous different causes. Besides observed behavior, doctors will also take a history that includes the person’s reported experiences, and reports of others familiar with the person, when making a diagnosis.[7] To diagnose someone with schizophrenia, doctors are supposed to confirm that symptoms and functional impairment are present for six months (DSM-5) or one month (ICD-11).[7][11] Many people with schizophrenia have other mental disorders, especially substance use disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and obsessive–compulsive disorder.


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